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成考专升本英语重点语法资料一
发布日期:2017-4-19 17:20:45 来源:广东成考网 阅读: 【字体:

  一、名词

  1、可数名词Countable Noun

  1.1 规则名词的复数形式,如:

  ①map——maps           ②box——boxes            ③story——stories

  1.2不规则名词的复数形式

  1) 以-o结尾的名词多数加-es构成复数:

  hero——heroes 英雄     cargo——cargoes货物     potato——potatoes 土豆     tomato——tomatoes西红柿

  **某些外来词以-o结尾,但只加-s:

  auto——autos 汽车      piano——pianos钢琴      photo——photos 照片       kilo——kilos公里

  **以-oo或元音字母加-o结尾的词也只加-s:

  zoo——zoos动物园     radio——radios收音机    bamboo——bamboos竹子       studio——studios照相馆

  2)以-f或-fe结尾的名词,多数变f为v再加上-es:

  thief——thieves小偷                       knife——knives刀                        wife——wives妻子

  life——lives生命                          shelf——shelves架子                      half——halves半

  **但有些只加-s:    belief——beliefs信念                          roof——roofs屋顶

  3)常见特殊复数形式:

  child——children孩子    foot——feet脚,英尺      goose——geese鹅          ox——oxen牛

  tooth——teeth牙齿     mouse——mice老鼠       basis——bases基础          medium——media媒介

  man——men 男人    woman——women女人    chairman——chairmen主席     datum——data数据

  4)常见单复数形式相同:

  sheep绵羊            deer鹿               fish鱼                  fruit水果

  yuan 元              shark鲨鱼            Chinese 中国人          Swiss瑞士人

  5)常见的只能用复数形式的名词:

  works工厂           species种类           crossroads十字路口       means手段

  goods货物           clothes衣服      shoes鞋       thanks感谢      surroundings环境

  politics政治学      physics物理学      glasses眼镜      outskirts郊区       wages工资

  ***另外一些集合名词如:cattle, mankind, police, people, staff等总是用作复数。

  2、不可数名词

  2.1单位词修饰不可数名词:

  a piece of bread 一片面包   a bag of sand 一袋沙   a bottle of beer一瓶啤酒    a game of chess一盘棋

  2.2度量词修饰不可数名词:a kilo of rice  一千克大米             a meter of string  一米带子

  2.3常见不可数名词:

  advice 忠告   bread 面包    chalk 粉笔    furniture 家具   meat 肉  damage 损失   progress 进步

  paper 纸    news新闻   rice 大米  money 钱    grass草     luggage行李        knowledge知识

  sugar糖        work工作      food 食物      information信息   equipment设备    baggage行李

  3、名词的所有格

  1)名词 + 's:                               Mary's book

  2) 名词s (复数) +  ':                          the workers' library

  特殊如: the children's palace 少年宫            Women's day 妇女节

  3) 如某物为两人所共有,只需在两个名词后加's:  Mary and Jane's car 共有

  否则为:Mary's and Jane's cars 各自

  4)双重所有格:

  a friend of my father's /mine   我(父亲)的一位朋友(部分概念)

  a photo of Tom's        汤姆所拥有的一张照片,但照片上的未必是他本人

  ***名词和数词组成复合结构:

  一个为期三天的假期① a three-week holiday ② a three weeks'holiday ③ a holiday of three weeks

  Dr. Jones has a five-year-old daughter.

  二、冠词

  1、不定冠词a、an:表泛指,用于单数可数名词前,表示任何一个/类。

  1.1以辅音音素开头的名词或词组前用a;以元音音素开头的名词或词组前用an

  a university        a European        a book         an umbrella          an hour         an error

  ***不可数名词用作可数名词时,可用a/an,如:            She was inspired with a new courage.

  1.2常见使用不定冠词的固定搭配:

  have a cold 患感冒           as a result因此,结果         as a rule 通常         have a good time

  have a word with与…谈话     have a rest休息一会          in a hurry匆忙地       in a word 总之

  once in a while偶尔           take a walk 散步            come to an end 结束    all of a sudden 突然

  make a living谋生            make a fire生火             make a fortune发财

  a couple of 一对             a great deal of大量的          a lot of 许多

  2、定冠词the:表特指,意为这(些)、那(些)。

  1) 第二次提到,或双方都已知道的人或事物:

  There is some water in the cup. The water is hot.                             Close the door, please.(已知)

  2) 单数可数名词前,表示种类:

  The telephone was invented by Bell.                           The early bird catches the worms.捷足先登

  3) 世界上独一无二的事物,以及表示江河、海洋、山脉等地理名称:

  the earth       the Bible圣经         the Universe 宇宙                the Yangtze River长江

  the sun        the Lord 上帝         the Pacific Ocean太平洋           the Sahara Desert撒哈拉沙漠

  4)限定意味较强的定语:      the book you bought yesterday                       the history of China

  5)用于具有鉴别意义的普通名词前,如:  the planet Mercury水星           the play "King Lear"剧本《李尔王》

  6)其他用法:

  ①西洋乐器前,表示演奏某种乐器:play the violin (piano)

  ②某些形容词前,使其名词化,表示这一类人或事物:the poor, the true

  ③姓氏的复数形式和民族名称前,表示全家和整个民族:the Turners, the Chinese

  ④逢十的年份前,表示几十年代:in the 1980s

  ⑤形容词最高级和序数词前:the biggest, the second

  ⑥某些计量单位的名词前:Apples are sold by the pound.

  7)常见使用定冠词的固定搭配:

  by the way 顺便说一句      in the future 未来       in the morning在上午       in the end 最终

  in the meanwhile同时        in the sun在阳光下     on the average平均         on the alert警惕

  on the contrary相反         on the right在右边      on the increase增长         on the spot 当场

  play the fool 做傻事       keep the house居家不外出     in the dark 在暗处     at the cost of 以…为代价

  3、零冠词

  1)不可数名词表示泛指时:Without water man cannot live.

  2)复数可数名词表示泛指时:Teachers generally like diligent students.

  3)专有名词前一般用零冠词:China, Asia, Beijing University, Hyde Park(海德公园)

  4)其他用法:   ①季节名称前:Summer is coming.

  ②法定节日前: National Day                      New Year's Day

  ③球类运动和棋类游戏前:play football, play chess(bridge)下棋(打桥牌)

  ④餐名前:When will lunch be ready?

  5)零冠词固定短语:

  at first     at desk(table) 在办公(吃饭)     at last     on purpose故意     on foot徒步    in debt负债

  in trouble陷入困境     at night      at sea在海上     at home     by accident偶然     in bed 卧床

  by chance碰巧      in order of 以…的次序       go to school       go to bed      in common 相同的

  in detail详细地       in hospital住院       in/ after class      take place 发生     in return作为回敬

  in sight of 看见      on fire在燃烧        make friends with          keep in mind记在心里

  三、代词

  1、人称代词

  主格 I you he,she,it we you they

  宾格 me you him,her,it us you them

  1.1排序一般为:第二人称,第三人称,第一人称:you,he and I;you,John and I

  1.2 it 的用法

  ①代事物、动物、婴儿以及未知的人或事:Who is that? It's my friend.

  ②用于引出非人称句,表示天气、时间和距离等:It's cloudy today.

  ③形式代词:It is quite right that you did that.

  ④引导强调句:It was his father that made him a lawyer.

  2、物主代词

  形容词性 my your his,her,its our your their

  名词性 mine yours his,hers,its ours yours theirs

  2.1形容词性物主代词属限定词范围,注意避免人称和数的误用。

  2.2名词性物主代词可作主语、宾语和表语。

  Ours is a socialist country.     This dictionary is mine.        a friend of mine           no fault of yours

  3、反身代词

  myself yourself himself,herself,itself ourselves yourselves themselves

  Take care of yourself.                                       He was teaching himself English.

  The man in the photo is myself.                               She herself was a doctor.

  4、指示代词:this、that、these、those

  4.1关于that的固定用法:

  (1)Jack helped finish my work and that was kind of him.杰克帮助我完成了任务,他(那样做)真是太好了。

  (2)He told me only part of the story and that was that.  他只跟我讲了这个故事的一部分,就那些。

  4.2关于that 和those:

  (1)It's a different kind of car from that  (kind of car) (which) I'm used to.这种汽车和我所习惯的那种不同。

  (2)The president and his wife were among those (who were) present at the ceremony.

  出席那个典礼有总统和他的夫人。

  5、相互代词:each other(两者)和one another(两者以上)

  (1)The two parties, the Democratic Party and the Republic Party often attack each other.

  (2)The boys in this class like to bully one another. 这个班上的男孩子喜欢互相打斗。

  6、不定代词

  6.1 all和both

  (1)前者表示两个以上;后者表示两个。                      (2)都位于行为动词之前,be动词后:

  They all (both) agreed with me.                                      They are all (both) quite wealthy.

  6.2 no one和 none

  (1)no one只用于指人,none可指人也可指物。None of后接的谓语可用复数也可用单数。

  No one told us that he was there.       I want some milk but there was none in the house.

  How many elephants did you see at the zoo?    ----None.

  None of them have (has) arrived yet.                                      None of this money is mine.

  7、some / any/ no/ every+(thing, one ,body…)

  7.1 everyone和 every one

  前者意思为"每个人",与everybody同义,用于泛指,不可跟of短语;

  后者意思是每个人或物,用于特指,可跟of短语。

  everyone in the village 村子里所有的人(泛指)       every one of the children 这些孩子中的每一个(特指)

  7.2 anybody,everybody和"every(each)+单数名词"

  正式英语  Anybody can do it if he or she tries.                   日常英语   if they try

  Everybody started waving his flag.                               their flags

  Everybody has arrived, hasn't he?                                haven't they

  ***Everything is all right,isn's it?

  7.3 something, anything, nothing等被形容词修饰时,该形容词后置: nothing wrong

  8、否定

  1)部分否定:当all,both,each和every(body,thing)等表示整体意义的代词与否定词连用时,一般只表示部分否定。

  All of the students did not turn up.不是所有的学生都出席。    现代英语常用作:Not all of the students turned up.

  2)全部否定:none, no one, neither,nobody,nothing 等对整体意义具有否定作用的代词或副词。

  None of the students turned up.没有一个学生出席。

  9、其他限定词

  1) 常见修饰可数名词的限定词:(a) few, a couple of, both, many, many a, a great many, several, a number of

  2) 常见修饰不可数名词的限定词:(a)little, much, a (large) amount of, a great deal of, a bit of

  3)some/any/no                    any:非肯定句(否定、疑问、条件句)            no:否定句

  some:肯定句和含有肯定意味的场合,特殊如:

  Can I have some coffee?请求或希望得到肯定回答时。

  Some idiot parked his car outside my garage. 表示某一个= a certain

  4) many/much          many接可数名词复数,much接不可数名词,在肯定句中常和so和too连用

  I have met (so)many people who share your view.                    (So) Much time has been wasted.

  **many a +单数可数名词相当于many+复数名词

  She has been to Beijing many a time. (many times)                      Many an accident has happened here.

  5)each/every

  each用作名词或形容词,every用作形容词,后面必须跟名词。

  "我们中的每个人"应为every one of us或each of us.

  6)both/either

  both为两者都…,后接复数动词,either为两者中任何一个,接单数动词。两者的否定形式为neither.

  Truth may lie on both sides,on either side,or on neither(side)。

  7)either/any                          either为两者中的任何一个;any为两者以上中的任何一个。

  Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. Either day is OK.             You will find me at my desk at any hour of the day.

  ***either后接end,side等词有时可指两个都: There are trees on either side of the street. = both sides

  8)neither/none

  表示两者都不…,用neither;表示两者以上都不…,用none(of)。

  Neither接单数可数名词,none of 接复数名词。

  Neither book is mine.

  None of the books on the shelves belong to me.       (用复数动词,强调"都不是")

  **Of all the books on the shelves, none belongs to me. (用单数动词,强调"没有一本是".)

  9)all/whole

  区别:①all可接复数可数名词或不可数名词,whole一般接单数可数名词。

  ②语序:all用于冠词、所有格或其他限定词之前,whole只用于冠词等限定词的后面。

  He ate all the vegetables.                                           He ate the whole pie.

  The whole book is interesting.                                      All the chapters are interesting.

  10) another/other

  This book is too difficult. Show me another one.

  Of the three books on the desk, two are written by Dickens, the other one is written by Mark Twain.

  ***other前面可带some, any, every, many, one, his等其他限定词。

  Will you come some other time? 改日                              Please write on every other line.隔行

  ***the rest of the money  不可数名词                             the rest of the workers可数名词

  11)a number of/ the number of

  前者为:许多…,后接复数名词,谓语用复数。后者为:…的总数,谓语用单数。

  A number of comrades were absent from the meeting.

  The number of comrades absent from the meeting was surprising.

  12) few/ a few                                               few表否定, a few表数量不大,表肯定。

  quite a few 表相当多,为肯定。                                 only a few表否定,同few.

  13)little/ a little用法同上

 
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