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  according to       ahead of      apart from      by means of    but for    because of   due to   except for         for the sake of            in addition to          instead of             in front of

  in spite of       in the name of        on behalf of      prior to      with regard to       owing to由于


   concerning    including     past    regarding


  3.1 表示时间的介词at, on, in, after, for, since, by, till, until, during



  at 4:30 (noon, dawn, midnight……)                                on Sunday (Oct.1……)

  on Saturday afternoon (an autumn evening……)                ***in the afternoon on Sunday

  at Christmas                                            in (during) 1987 (December, the 19th century……)

  during my military service (the trip)                             The job was done in a week.

  ②He will be back in two hours.                                 He will be back after two o'clock.

  ③I stayed in London (for) two days on my way to New York.                since 1950 (then)

  ④By noon, everybody had (will have) arrived there. 到中午的时候,大家都(将)到那儿了。

  from 1985 to 1996

  ⑤He waited till(until)5 o'clock.        They stayed until (till) after the meeting. (肯定句中表示:直到…时候)

  Until now I knew nothing about it.       Jack didn't come home until / till about 11. (否定句中表示:直到…才)

  3.2表示地点、位置的介词in, at, round, around, beyond, on, beneath, over, under, above, below, up, down, before, behind, between, among, amid(st)

  ①The car pulled up at the gate.车停在大门口                              She lives at No. 52 Hazel Avenue.

  They have arrived in Peking.                                          What is in the box?

  ②He put a necklace (a)round her neck.                                   He is making a trip round the world.

  ③beyond表示在…以外: There is a village beyond the hill.


  There is a book on the desk.                   The submarine can run very fast beneath the sea.

  ⑤over:在(垂直)上方; under:在(垂直)下方:

  There is a lamp over the table.                  The peasants are having a rest under the tree.

  ⑥above:在…上方; below:在…下方:

  The plane is flying above the clouds.                           The sun sank below the horizon.

  ⑦before:在…前面;after:在…后面  (两者具有动态意义)

  Don't put the cart before the horse.莫本末倒置。    The object should be placed after the verb.

  ***in front of和behind表示静态意义的位置。

  The car was parked in front of the building.                  There is a garden behind the house.

  ⑧between:在(两者)之间:Is there any difference between the two words?

  among:在(两者以上)之间:They visited the temple among the hills.


  The soldiers charged forward amid(st) the enemy bullets.

  3.3表示方向、方位的介词to,in,for, at

  ① in在…面(包含在其中):                  Shanghai lies in the east of China.

  to在…部(不包含在其中):                Japan lies to the east of China.

  on 两地接壤:                            Vietnam lies on the south of China.

  ②leave, start, depart等词后加for,表示目的地:He will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.

  3.4表示空间运动的介词along, across, through, over, up, down, from, to, into, out of

  ①along沿着: They are taking a walk along the street.

  across横过: Dare you swim across the river?

  ②through(从中间穿过): They drove through the city (tunnel)

  over越过: The plane flew over the city.

  ③up向上方: He ran up the stairs.              down向下方: The ship is sailing down the river.

  ④He received a letter from abroad.                     She stood up and walked to the window.

  3.5表示工具、方法和手段的介词with, by, in, through, on


  Wood is often cut with a saw.                                We should face the situation with great courage.


  Babies learn to speak by imitation.                                       We can get energy by burning fuel.

  3) in表示方式: Can you do the experiment in another way?                   Cloth is often measured in metres.

  4) through表示途径,手段,与by接近:                                  He became rich through hard work.

  3.6表示原因的介词because of, owing to, due to(一般不位于句首), on account of, at, for, from, with, of

  eg. The flight was cancelled due to the fog.                             We rejoiced at their great achievements.

  He was punished for stealing.                                   They are suffering from starvation and disease.

  She was red with shame.    The man died of lung cancer.直接原因    The soldier died from a bad wound.间接原因

  3.7除了…:besides, except, except for, but, apart from(意思较广)

  Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry.

  He answered all the questions except (but) the last one.

  Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.整体中除去一个细节

  The enemy had no choice but to surrender.

  ***but for表示:要不是因为,倘若没有,常用于虚拟语气表示含蓄条件。

  3.8表示让步的介词in spite of, despite, after all, for all, with all

  The children continued to play in the garden despite the rain.

  With all his achievements, he remains modest and prudent.谦虚谨慎             For all his faults, we still like him.


  5.1系表结构,应用形容词作表语:The dish smells good.  He looks very serious.  She felt bad at the news.


  clean   direct   firm   likely   quick   close   early   hard    long    slow    clear   enough  high

  low    straight   dead   far   kindly    much   tight   deep  fast  late  near  wrong   wide

  John drives very fast.                                                     He took a fast train to London.

  You must go straight to bed.                                              The teacher drew a straight line.


  daily每天的     lonely孤独的    lovely可爱的   lively活泼的    monthly每月一次的   friendly友好的

  kindly和蔼的    early早的       silly愚蠢的    timely及时的    likely很可能的       ugly丑陋的

  deadly致命的    deathly死一般的     earthly世俗的             其中early, kindly, likely也可用作副词。


  bad 坏的   badly 非常            practical实际的 practically事实上       hard坚硬   hardly 几乎不

  large 大的  largely主要地         late迟的,晚的  lately近来             like像   likely 很可能

  scarce 稀少的 scarcely 几乎不      short 短的 shortly 不久,很快          bare 光秃的  barely仅仅


  ****This is a tough task.  作定语                                       This task is tough.作表语


  asleep睡着的    afraid 害怕的    aware意识到的  awake醒的   alike相似的  alone单独的  alive活着的

  ashamed羞愧的  content满意的   glad高兴的     unable不能的  well健康的  fond喜欢的   sorry抱歉的


  作表语                    作定语

  ill                   生病的                    邪恶的

  hard                 严厉的                    努力的

  certain               有把握的                  某(一)个

  little                 少的                      小的

  present               出席的                    当前的



  eg. our great, socialist mother 我们伟大的社会主义祖国

  that hungry, tired, sleepy, little match girl那个饥饿的、疲倦的、瞌睡的、卖火柴的小女孩

  2.2同类形容词排列,较短的放在前面:                    a kind, generous, old man一个和蔼、慷慨的老人

  2.3同类的形容词之间也可用and连接:That is a black and white cat.           He was tall, dark and handsome.


  1) sleepy 瞌睡的                  2) healthy 健康的                    3) industrial 工业的

  asleep 睡着的                    healthful有益于健康的                industrious勤奋的

  4) historic 有历史意义的           5) continual 频繁的                   6) economic经济(上)的

  historical 历史的                  continuous 连续不断的                economical节省的

  7) distinct 清晰的                 8) respectable 值得尊敬的             9) everyday日常的

  distinctive 有特色的               respectful 有礼貌的                  every day每天(作状语)

  10) all ready都准备好的           11) popular流行的                    12) considerable相当的

  already (副词)已经                populous人口稠密的                  considerate考虑周到的

  13) disinterested无私的            14) honorary名誉上的                 15) practical实用的

  uninterested不感兴趣的            honorable可尊敬的                   practicable可行的

  16) defective有缺点的             17) alone独自的                      18) successful成功的

  deficient缺乏的                   lonely孤独的                        successive连续的

  19) principal主要的               20) pleasant令人愉快的                21) desirable中意的

  principle原则n.                  pleased高兴的                        desirous渴望的

  22) imminent紧迫的               23) live活的(作定语)                  24) like相象的

  eminent著名的                    lively活泼的                         alike相象的(作表语)

  alive活的(作表语)                    likely可能的

  25) dead死的                     26) sensitive敏感的                   27) efficient效率高的

  deadly致命的                     sensible明智的                      proficient熟练的

  deathly死一般的                  sensory知觉的                       sufficient足够的

  28) imaginable可以想象的      29) invaluable无价的    30) eligible合格的        31) stationary静止的

  imaginary想象中的            valueless无价值的      illegible字迹不清的       stationery文具

  imaginative有想象力的         priceless无价的        illegal非法的



  high高高地  highly高度地           direct径直地   directly立刻          late晚,迟   lately 最近

  pretty相当地  prettily优美地         sharp突然   sharply严厉地           short突然    shortly马上

  most最   mostly大部分             near近   nearly几乎                 just正好   justly公正地

  hard努力地  hardly几乎不           free免费地   freely自由地

  1.2副词在句中的位置                        quickly enough                  do everything carefully


  ①Frankly, the students didn't work hard enough last term.                表态度

  ②The clock is old; it is, however, in good condition.                     表逻辑关系

  ③The rain didn't last long, as they had expected.                       表解释

  ④That accident, John recalled, occurred on a summer morning.            表主次关系


  1.1肯定式原级比较:……像……那样: as + 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词(主格)

  Some of the stars may be as large as the sun and as hot as the sun.

  1.2否定式原级比较:……不如……那样:not so或as+ 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词(主格)

  The melting point of copper is not so (或as) high as that of iron.


  He is not so (much) unintelligent as uneducated.与其说他不聪明,不如说他未受过教育。

  1.4 more (less)……than结构有时表示:与其说……不如说……,用法同上。

  He is more diligent than clever. 与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋。

  She was less hurt than frightened. 与其说她受伤了,不如说被吓着了。

  He is much more an actor than a musician. 与其说他是音乐家,不如说是演员。


  原级         比较级          最高级               原级          比较级            最高级

  good/well     better            best                 many/much     more              most

  little         less              least                 far           farther/further       farthest/furthest

  bad/badly/ill   worse            worst                old           elder/older         eldest/oldest

  late          later/latter        latest/last              near          nearer             nearest/nest



  much, many, far, by far, still, even, a lot,a little, a great deal,three years, one-third,20%等。

  eg. Air in the country is much (far…) cleaner than that in the city.

  He is three years older than his sister.           This month, they will produce 20% more coal than last month.

  many / far more opportunities可数                               much / far more money不可数


  This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间的大小是那个房间的三倍。

  Our trade union movement would be a thousand times stronger if it were better organized.

  如果组织得好一些, 我们的工会运动将会(比现在)强一千倍。

  2.4 "the + more……, the + more……"表示:"越……,越……"

  The earlier you start, the sooner you will be back.

  The more books one reads, the more knowledgeable he becomes.

  2.5 有时比较级也用"the +比较级 + of +比较范围(通常两者)"结构:

  He is the cleverer of the two boys.                                  Of Mary and Jane, who is the smarter?

  2.6 not more than和 no more than的区别

  not more than:不超过,不及; no more than:转义为只不过,仅仅。= only

  There are not more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校的学生不超过五百。

  There are no more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校里的学生只有五百。

  类似的还有:not less than不少于                             no less than  有……之多

  not better than 不比……好                       no better than   一样的不好


  absolute绝对的      sole唯一的      eternal永恒的     total总的     first第一的        ultimate最终的

  true真实的      unique独特的       wrong错误的      final 最终的     correct正确的     last最后的

  only仅有的      perfect 完美的     primary首要的     unanimous一致的


  inferior劣等的               junior年幼的               superior优越的                senior年长的




  appear     be      become      come       fall        feel        get       go       grow     keep

  lie       remain      rest        run        smell      sound      stand     stay      taste     look



  Do you read newspaper every day?                                   The job will be finished soon.




  catch       come       die     find     give      join     kill     lose     leave     marry     realize


  ①动态动词:live, sit, stand, study, talk, work, write等

  ②状态动词:be, belong, consist, exist, feel, hate, have, hope, love, want等


  ask     bring    buy    choose    do    deny    fetch     get    give    grant    hand    leave  lend

  make   offer    order    pay    pass   promise    sell    send    show    take    teach   tell    write


  1、动词 + 介词:

  listen to听        amount to等于        long for渴望      call on号召      operate on 为……动手术

  consist of 由……组成       resist in坚持       account for解释       look at 看       care for  照顾

  object to反对       send for 派人去请       rely on 依靠       depend on 依靠       stand for代表

  laugh at 嘲笑       wait for等待            look into调查      apply for申请         believe in 信仰

  play with玩         come across碰见        go through通过