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成考专升本英语重点语法资料三
发布日期:2017-4-19 17:20:42 来源:广东成考网 阅读: 【字体:

  2、动词 + 副词:

  give up放弃        carry out执行        look up查找         point out指出        bring up抚养

  find out查明        hand in上交         make out认出        think over考虑       put on穿

  wipe out消灭       pick up拣起         throw away抛弃      set up建立           take off脱掉

  turn down拒绝      give away暴露       hand out分发        call off取消          turn off关掉

  knock off停工      stand up起立         break down出毛病    look out小心        take off起飞

  run out耗尽        catch up赶上         give in让步          grow up长大        hang around逗留

  pass away去世      show off炫耀         drop out退出        get up起床          go on 继续

  3、动词 + 副词 + 介词:

  cut down on减少     get along with与…相处     run out of 用光    look up to尊敬    date back to追溯

  get through with完成     keep up with 跟上    make up for 补偿    come down with患病   sit in on旁听

  do away with 抛弃   look forward to 期望   put up with 忍受   stand up to反对   look down upon瞧不起

  4、动词 + 名词 + 介词

  catch sight of 看见          find fault with挑…毛病        keep an eye on照看       make fun of 取笑

  make friends with与…交友    pay attention to注意    shake hands with与…握手   take advantage of 利用

  take part in参加           get rid of摆脱              give rise to引起           lose sight of 看不见

  make use of 利用          take care of照料            throw light on阐明           put a stop to结束

  时态

  体态 一般 进行 完成 完成进行

  时间  be +现在分词 have+过去分词 have been+

  现在分词

  现在 works

  work is

  am + working

  are has

  have+worked has

  have+been working

  过去 worked was

  were + working had worked had been working

  将来 will

  shall +work will

  shall +be working will

  shall+have worked will

  shall+have been working

  过去将来 would

  should+work would

  should+be working would

  should+have worked would

  should +have been working

  1、一般现在时

  1.1表习惯性动作;人或事物的特性或状态;客观真理等

  Everyone is in high spirits.     Light travels more quickly than sound.

  1.2用于时间和条件状语从句,代替一般将来时

  If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.      When you come next time, bring me some magazines.

  1.3与具有"出发,到达"含义的动词连用,表示按计划将要发生的动作

  The delegation arrives in Beijing this afternoon.    There is a new film tonight.

  2、一般过去时(表示过去某时间的动作或状态)

  The children went out just now.              She died ten years ago.   I lost my wallet at the theatre.

  3、一般将来时

  3.1 will/shall do:   Next month, my sister will be nineteen.    I shall/will return you the book tomorrow.

  3.2 be going to do:  The wall is going to be painted green.    It is going to rain.

  3.3 be to do表示按计划要发生的事:        We are to meet at the school gate.

  3.4 be about to do即将(正要)做某事:      Autumn harvest is about to start.

  4、一般过去将来时

  He said that he would get married soon.      I asked him when he would come here again.

  5、现在进行时

  5.1表示说话时,或现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的情况。   They are making an experiment now.

  5.2 计划即将发生,如go, come, leave, arrive:         He is coming here next week and is staying here until August.

  6、过去进行时  

   We were talking about you a moment ago.            I was playing the piano when she came in.

  7、将来进行时   

  What will you be doing this time tomorrow?   I believe he'll be coming soon.

  8、现在完成时

  8.1过去发生但对现在有影响的动作,常跟时间状语already, yet, never, before, recently, just, ever, once连用。

  I have been to Peking many times.     They have already published the results of their experiments.

  8.2从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在(可能还要继续下去)的动作,常跟时间状语since, for two years,

  so far, in recent years等(使用延续性动词)

  He has lived here since 1984.           I have studied English for two years.

  1)他参军已经有十年了。  ①He has been an armyman for ten years.

  ②It is (has been) ten years since he joined the army.

  ③He joined the army ten years ago.

  2)It is (has been)…since:  It is (has been) a long time since they last met each other.

  3) This is the first(second) time that…: This is the second time that I have broken a cup this year.

  9、过去完成时

  John had learned some Chinese before he came to China.    He found the book that he had lost.

  By the end of last year, I had worked in this college for ten years.

  ***no sooner………than,  hardly(scarcely)……when(before)

  We had no sooner reached home than it began to rain.       No sooner had we reached home than it began to rain.

  He had hardly entered the office when (before) the phone rang.

  10、现在完成进行时(常跟for hours, since this morning等表示一段时间的状语连用)

  They have been watching TV for two hours.  He has been working on this essay since this morning.

  11、时态呼应特殊规则

  Kepler proved that the sun is the center of the solar system. 客观真理

  I didn't go to the ball because I am not fond of dancing.    意义需要

  被动语态

  一般时态 进行时态 完成时态

  现在 am

  is            written

  are  am

  is         being given

  are  has

  been written

  have

  过去 was

  were         written was

  were      being given  had been written

  将来 shall

  will          be written  shall

  will     have been written

  过去将来 should

  would        be written  should

  would   have been written

  ***有些动词表示状态或关系,通常不用于被动语态:

  cost花费            fit适合              have有             hold容纳             lack缺乏

  own占有            possess拥有         resemble像          suit适合              last持续

  The boy resembles his father.     We have friends all over the world.

  ***少数短语动词通常只用被动语态:

  ①be taken in受骗,上当      ②be supposed to do something应该,被期望

  ③be intended for something(somebody) / to do something旨在,用于

  The book is intended for beginners.    We are supposed to meet at the gate at 7:00.

  ***转化为系动词的感官动词 + 表语

  Good medicine tastes bitter.      This material feels very soft.

  ***不及物动词和词组无被动语态: How long did the meeting last?

  ***in case, whether, where, as soon as遵照"主将从现"原则, 主句用将来时态,从句用现在时态

  Whether I win or lose, I will have a good time.   I will write to you as soon as I get here.

  ***表示心理活动和存在的动词一般不用进行时态:     They love and respect each other.

  七、非谓语动词(不定式、分词、动名词)

  (一)不定式

  1、一般用法

  1)作主语:   To say something is one thing, to do it is another.说是一码事,干是另一码事。

  ***形式主语it   It is not fair to blame them for the accident.

  2)作表语:  My suggestion is to carry out the plan immediately.

  3)作宾语:   He offered to go with us.他提出和我们一起去。

  ***形式宾语it     We found it impossible to get everything ready in advance.

  I consider it my duty to point out their shortcomings.

  4)作宾语或主语的补足语: Mr. Smith wants his son to become a lawyer.

  The suspected man was seen to enter the building.

  此类动词还有如ask, advise, allow, compel, encourage, hear, intend, lead, inspire, order, persuade等。

  ***hope, demand, suggest不可接不定式作宾补,但可跟that引出的宾语从句。

  He hoped that I would give him more help.    The doctor suggests that my father (should) stop smoking.

  ***在see, hear, look at, listen to, feel, observe, watch, notice等感官动词, 以及let, make, have 等动词后面的不定式要省掉to .但注意在其被动语态中,作为主补的不定式要加上to.

  We are made to write a composition every week by the teacher.

  5)构成复合谓语结构:

  ① "be said (reported, known…) + 不定式"可换成: it is said (reported, known…)that…

  Shanxi Province is known to have rich coal reserves. = It is known that Shanxi ……

  ② seem (happen, appear, prove, tend) + 不定式

  I happened to be out when she called.  碰巧出去了

  ③ be likely (certain, sure, willing, anxious, ready, bound, eager, reluctant) + 不定式

  They are likely to succeed.      She is always ready to help others.

  6)作定语(一般为后置修饰语)

  He used to have a lot of meetings to attend.      There is nothing to worry about.

  ①英语中有一些名词常跟不定式作定语:ability, agreement, ambition, attempt, claim, decision, hope, intention, failure, need, refusal, plan, promise, tendency, wish, willingness, threat, anxiety

  His attempt to solve the problem failed again.                 Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.

  ② the first, second, last, only (thing), best (thing)等后面常跟不定式作定语。

  He is always the first to come and the last to leave.       What is the best thing to do?

  7)作状语(表示目的,原因,结果等)

  They will go to the station to meet the guests.       We are overjoyed to see you.

  常跟不定式作原因状语的形容词有: happy, glad, relieved, astonished, amazed, overjoyed, surprised, sad

  不定式也可作结果状语,仅限于learn得知, find发现, see看见, hear听见,to be told被告知, make使得等具有界限含义的动词, only to常表示令人不快的结果。

  He returned home to learn his daughter had just been engaged.

  I hurried to Professor Wang's house only to find he was out.

  ①不定式与in order to, so as to连用,作目的状语;与so(such)… as to连用,作目的状语和结果状语。

  In order to catch the train, he hurried through his work.                 He was so angry as to be unable to speak.

  ②不定式与enough和too…to连用,作程度状语。

  ③all too, only too…加不定式不表示否定的意思:  I'm only too pleased to help you.我非常愿意帮助你。

  8)插入语:  To be fair, he has worked hard these days.     We don't like your idea, to tell you the truth.

  2、注意问题:

  1)不定式的逻辑主语

  (1) for + 名词或代词宾语 + 不定式:I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.

  (2) 不定式独立结构:He proposed a picnic, he himself to pay the railway tickets, and John to provide the food.

  在表示人物性格、特点等的形容词后,用of引出不定式的逻辑主语:

  It was wise of him to do that.    I think it wrong of him not to accept our invitation.

  常见的这类形容词有:

  absurd荒唐的    bold大胆的    brave勇敢的    clever聪明的    courageous有勇气的    rude无礼的

  considerate考虑周到的      foolish愚蠢的     honest诚实的      polite有礼貌的      silly傻的

  grateful感激的       wicked邪恶的      thoughtful体贴的       careless粗心的      right正确的

  2)不定式的否定式: not + to do                                 They decided not to give up trying.

  3)连接词 + 不定式:                                        He will tell us how to use the library.

  4)省 to 的不定式

  ①口语以 why 开头的简单句:      Why not go out for a walk?    Why do it that way?

  ②had better, would rather…(than), would…rather than, would sooner…(than), can not but…, can't help but…, may(might) as well习惯用法

  Rather than beg in the street, he would prefer to die of hunger.他宁愿饿死也不上街。

  I could't help but wait for the next bus to come.我不得不等下一趟车。

  ***③do nothing/anything/everything but (except)

  Last night I did nothing but watch TV.     John will do anything but work on a farm.

  ****其他的谓语形式要用to :

  There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.      The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.

  3、不定式的"体"式和语态

  体式       主动语态      被动语态

  一般式                        to write          to be written

  完成式                       to have written       to have been written

  进行式                       to be writing

  完成进行式                   to have been writing

  ⑴体式  ①I am sorry to hear the news.(不定式动作发生在谓语动作之后,或同时发生)

  ②They seem to be having a meeting. (不定式动作与谓语动作同时发生)

  ③The enemy was reported to have surrendered two days before.(不定式先于谓语动作)

  ⑵语态  ①出现动作的执行者,用主动式:I have a meeting to attend.

  否则用被动语态:Here are the clothes to be washed.

  ②在"表语(或宾语补足语)+ 不定式"结构中,常用不定式的主动式代替被动式:

  They found Professor Jones' lecture hard to understand.   She is nice to talk to.

  ③习惯用法:None of us was to blame for that.

  The dog was nowhere to be found.

  (二)分词(现在分词和过去分词)

  比较:  剥削阶级the exploiting class    被剥削阶级the exploited class

  正在采花的女孩the girl gathering flowers    今天早晨采集的花the flowers gathered this morning

  落叶fallen leaves     凋谢的花faded flowers   开水boiled water   新到的商品newly arrived goods

  1、一般用法

  1)作表语,现在分词常表示特性,过去分词常表示状态。

  His argument is very convincing. 他的论点很令人信服。   They were very excited at the news.

  2)作定语

  Don't disturb the sleeping child.   The arrested murderer will be tried soon.那个被逮捕的杀人犯将受到审讯。

  分词作定语的位置

  You may ask the lady (who is) sitting at the desk.

  Those (who have been) elected as committee members will attend the meeting. (当选为委员的人)

  3)作宾语(或主语)的补足语

  He likes to sit on the beach and watch the sea gulls flying. (海鸥)   The work left everyone exhausted.

  4)作状语

  Hearing the knock on the door, they stopped talking. (= When they heard…。)

  Asked to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. (= As I was asked to…。)

  They stood there waiting for the bus. (and were waiting…。)

  The bandits fled into the mountains, pursued by the policemen. (and were pursued…。)

  5) 分词的独立结构

  The rain having stopped, the soldiers continued their march.

  The boys returned, their face covered with sweat.

  演变:    The teacher entered the classroom, a bag (being) in his hand.

  He stopped and turned about, his eyes (being) brightly proud.   Breakfast over, he went to his office.

  She left the room with the candle burning on the table.    He wandered in without shoes or socks on.

  6) 作插入语

  Generally speaking, I prefer rice to noodles.    Judging from his accent, he must be a southerner.

  2、体式和语态

  Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.

  Not having made adequate preparations, we postponed the sports meet.

  Having studied hard during the term, he passed the exam.

  He is said to have studied hard and passed the exam.  Who is the patient being operated on?

  (二)动名词

  1、一般用法

  1)作主语和表语  Seeing is believing.   My hobby is collecting stamps.

  (1) 形式主语it    It is no use/good quarreling with her.   Is it worthwhile trying again?

  (2) There is no +V-ing    There is no joking about this matter.

  2) 作宾语

  He enjoys listening to classical music.  We must avoid making such mistakes again.

 
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