您当前位置:广东成考网 >> 学习资料 >> 专升本 >> 英语 >> 浏览文章
成考专升本英语重点语法资料四
发布日期:2017-4-19 17:20:40 来源:广东成考网 阅读: 【字体:

  (1)常见只跟动名词作宾语的词或词组:

  admit承认  avoid避免   consider考虑   delay耽搁   deny否认  endure忍耐  enjoy喜欢  escape逃避  excuse原谅   fancy想象   finish完成    forbid严禁   imagine想象   mind介意    miss错过   dislike厌恶

  permit允许    postpone推迟     practice练习    require需要    risk冒…危险    stop停止    suggest建议

  can't help禁不住    feel like想,欲    give up放弃     keep on继续进行     object to反对     put off推迟

  (2)常见既可跟动名词也可跟不定式作宾语的动词有:

  attempt试图    begin开始    can't bear忍不住    cease停止    continue继续    deserve值得   forget忘记

  hate不喜欢    intend打算    learn学习    like喜欢    love喜欢    prefer宁愿    need需要   neglect疏忽

  propose建议   remember 记得   regret懊悔   start开始   try尝试   oppose反对

  (3)是否用形式宾语it (当宾语补足语是一些带有"有用、明智、值得"等含义的形容词时,用形式宾语it)

  She found it useless arguing with him.    Do you consider it wise trying again?

  3)作介词宾语

  Have you got used to working on the night shift?     Children are fond of reading detective stories.

  He insisted on there being no discussion of his private affairs at the meeting.

  ****(1)某些习惯用法:

  He is busy (in) preparing a report.      They spent a lot of time (in) making preparations.

  The students had a good time (in) playing in the park.    We had great difficulty (in) finding his house.

  Do you have any problem (in) filling in the form?

  (2)介词 + 动名词常用作定语修饰名词,其中"of + 动名词"最多见。

  ①常见用介词 + 动名词作定语的名词有:

  apology (for)    choice (of)     custom (of)    excuse (of)    experience (in)   importance (of)    practice (of)

  habit (of)      honor (of)      hope (of)      idea (of)       means (of)     method (of/for)     purpose (of)

  necessity (of)   objection (to)   possibility (of)

  ②既可用介词 + 动名词也可用不定式作定语的名词有:

  intention (of)    opportunity (of)    plan (for)    reason (for)    right (of)     time (for)     way (of)

  4)作同位语

  His habit, studying at night, remains unchanged.   That was her favorite pastime(娱乐), playing chess.

  2、注意问题

  1)动名词的逻辑主语 ①人称代词的所有格 + 动名词,②名词's + 动名词。

  比较:⑴Tom insisted on going with them. (He went with them.)

  Tom insisted on my going with them. (I went with them.)

  ⑵He dislikes working late. (He works late.)        He dislikes his wife's working late. (His wife works late.)

  Is there any hope of John winning the first prize?         This is a clear case of electricity being converted into heat.

  2)动名词作定语     a studying plan                drinking water饮用水                 a swimming pool

  3)比较①remember/forget to do        ②regret to do     ③go on to do        ④try to do 设法做某事

  remember/forget doing          regret doing        go on doing          try doing试着做某事

  ⑤need/want to do                 ⑥used to do过去常常做某事

  need/want doing (被动)            be used to doing习惯于做某事

  3、动名词的体式和语态

  1)完成式:having done

  He was praised for having made a great contribution to his country.

  His having been elected chairman of the club surprised us greatly.

  2)被动式:being done

  He did it without being asked.         We insisted on being given the task.

  八、情态动词

词义 现在式 过去式 同义短语
能够,可能 can could be able to
许可,也许 may might  
必须,一定 must had to have to
应当,要 shall should ought to
愿意,要 will would  
需要 need    
dare    

  1、can/ could                    be able to可用于各种时态

  Jack can (is able to) speak five languages.     She has been able to play the piano since she was nine.

  In the early days, people could not (were not able to) count as we do now.

  1)I could catch the 7:30 train.能够做,但未必做   I was able to catch 7:30 train.能够做并且已做了

  2)潜在的可能: Anybody can make mistakes.  Experts said that another storm like this could destroy the crops.

  3)表示揣测/怀疑等态度:

  ①对现在用can(could) + 原形动词(状态动词),或can(could) + be + 现在分词(行为动词)

  This can't be true.                  They can't be working now.     Could this be a misprint?

  ②对过去用can(could) + have + 过去分词

  He can't have gone to Peking. I saw him only a while ago.    Could they have arrived there already?

  4)表示"请求"或"允许"

  You can go with them if you like.       Could I use your bike?  He asked me if he could use my bike.

  2、may/ might

  1)请求或允许: You may borrow any of those books on the shelves.  He asked if he might have a chat with me.

  2)表示客观可能性: Take an umbrella with you. It may rain.     They may not approve of your idea.

  3)揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)

  现在: He may know Miss Lee's telephone number.    This might be the key Tom has been looking for.

  过去: The train may have left already.       They might have been there before.

  4)祈祷/愿望: may + 宾语 +动词

  May God be with you!    May you succeed!    May you be happy!

  3、must

  1)"必须"(肯定句或疑问句)或"不许"(否定句)

  ——Must we hand in the papers this week?    ——No, you needn't.    Cars mustn't be parked here.

  2)"必然性",即:自然规律,或必然结果

  All men must die.     Bad seed must produce bad corn.

  3) 揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)

  现在: He must be sick for he looks so pale.    It must be raining outside.

  过去: It must have rained last night. The ground is wet.   I think my letter must have been miscarried.

  4、shall/ will

  1)shall ①用于主语为第一人称或第三人称的疑问句中,表示提出建议或征求对方的允诺。

  Shall I fetch a doctor for you?    Shall he attend the meeting?要他来参加会议吗?

  ②用在主语是第二人称或第三人称的陈述句中,表示允诺或警告。(可以或不可以,不得)

  You shall be sorry for what you have done.    He shall get what he wants. You shall not leave your post later.

  2)will   ①表示意志,意愿 We will do our best to get the job done in time.   She can stay home if she will.

  ②请求    Will you please be quiet?     Don't be late for the meeting, will you?

  5、should/ ought to

  1)应该,义务 (should更侧重主观看法,ought to更着重客观情况)  We should (ought to) work harder.

  Safety precautions should (ought to) be observed at all times.在任何时候都应遵守安全规定。

  2)对已发生的情况表示"责备"

  You should (ought to) have waited for us.   She shouldn't (oughtn't to) have let the baby play with fire.

  3)惊奇(虚拟语气)  I did not expect that you should have finished the work so soon.竟会如此快地

  4)推测,推论, 用法结构同can, may等词     They should have arrived in Shanghai by now.

  The report is written after careful investigation, so it should be reliable.

  6、would  近似于will的用法,

  ***表示过去习惯性动作,与used to do同义。

  In those days, he would (used to) visit me on Sundays.   Whenever I was in difficulty, he would gladly help me.

  7、need/ dare两者都可作情态动词,也可作实义动词。

  1) You needn't work so late. = You don't need to work so late.   Need he go? = Does he need to go?

  间接引语中表过去The manager said that I need not go.

  You needn't have bought that dictionary. I have a spare one. (But you have already bought one.)

  You needn't see him, but I must.

  2) She dare not (daren't) say what she thinks.   If the enemy dare come, they will certainly be wiped out.

  间接引语中表过去She said that she daren't tell them the truth.

  ①dare作实义动词用在否定句和疑问句中时,其后所接不定式有时可以省略"to":

  I have never dared (to) speak to him.    Did he dare (to) criticize my arrangement?

  ②习语I dare say:我认为,我猜想    You must be tired, I dare say.   I dare say you are right.

  8、had better/best

  You had better not go.  We had best take a short cut.抄近路      Hadn't you better take an umbrella?

  9、would/had rather……than……

  I am sure they would rather stay than go.  I would rather not lend you the book now. I'm using it now.

  10、cannot but/ cannot help

  cannot but do = have to    I cannot but tell her the truth.

  cannot help doing = cannot help but do    Hearing that, they could not help laughing.

  九、虚拟语气

现在的假设 were(+表语) should
If 主语+ V-ed… , 主语+ would … +动词原形
should do could
过去的假设 should
If 主语had + 过去分词, 主语+ would have +过去分词
could
将来的假设 should 动词原形 should
If 主语+ were to 动词原形 , 主语+ would +动词原形
动词过去式 could

  1、应用

  现在:The platform would collapse if all of you stood on it.

  过去:If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.

  If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam.

  将来:If he should change his mind, what would we do?

  If you missed the film tonight, you would feel sorry for it.

  2、注意问题

  1)should:一旦……     If it should rain tomorrow, we would have to change our plan.

  2) if only和suppose (supposing)引导的虚拟条件句: 要是,假如

  If only I had more money, I could buy a car.       Supposing it were fine tomorrow, would you go fishing with us?

  3) if it (be) not for…      要不是…相当于but for, without

  If it were not for the leadership of the Party, we could not be living a happy life today.

  If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work.

  4)连词if的省略 (将were, had, should等提到主语前面)

  Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved.      Shall it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.

  Were I to go to the moon some day, I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes.

  5)含蓄条件(without, but for, but that, but, otherwise以及比较级)

  Without electricity, there would be no modern industry.

  But that she was afraid, she would have said no.要不是害怕的话,她就会拒绝了。

  ****错综时间I would be most glad to help you, but I'm busy now.

  If I were you, I would have taken his advice.         If he had listened to me, he would not be in such trouble now.

  3、虚拟语气在表示要求、建议、命令等的从句中的应用

  1)宾语从句: He insisted that John (should) do the job.

  We suggested that the meeting (should) not be postponed.

  此类还有:ask要求  move提议   demand 要求  decide决定  insist坚持   command命令  prefer宁愿   propose提议    order下令    urge主张     require要求     request请求    suggest建议    advise劝告

  2) 主语从句: It is necessary that you should be present at the discussion.

  It was ordered that the medicines be sent here by plane.  (should可以省略)

  此类形容词或分词: essential必要的   urgent紧迫的    necessary必要的     important重要的     advisable合理的  asked要求   desired希望的   natural自然的  desirable理想的   demanded要求的    preferable更好的    imperative迫切的    required要求的    ordered命令的    suggested建议的

  3)同位语或表语从句: The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.

  Their demand is that their wages be increased by 20%.

  此类名词: advice忠告     command命令     demand要求    desire要求     idea意见     motion提议

  order 命令     plan 计划     proposal提议     preference偏爱     insistence主张     suggestion建议

  recommendation劝告      request 要求      requirement 要求

  4、wish从句

  ①同时,即与谓语动词同时存在的情况,形式为:that主语 + 动词过去式(be动词用were)

  ②先时,即在谓语动词时间之前就发生了的情况,形式为:that主语 + 动词过去分词

  ③后时,即在谓语动词时间之后出现的情况,形式为:that主语 + would(could…) + 动词原形

  同时I wish I were as young as you.      How they wished it were not raining then!

  先时I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.

  后时It was wished that they would make greater progress.       Isn't it your wish that you could buy a car like that?

  5、as if/ though

  She loves the children in the kindergarten as if they were her own. 同时

  Alan talked about Rome as if he were a Roman. 同时

  Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. 先时    She looks as if she would cry. 后时

  6、would / had rather, would (just) as soon, would sooner, would prefer等结构表示:希望或婉转的责备,其谓语动词形式与wish类从句大体相同。

  I'd rather you posted the letter right away.     I would prefer he didn't stay there too long.

  ***若主语是对自己行为表示某种愿望或感叹,则谓语形式有:

  ⑴现在情况:would rather + do;     ⑵过去情况:would rather + have done

  I would rather buy a house with a garden.      She would rather not have gone to the party.

  7、it is (about, high…) time + 从句 + 动词过去式

  It is high time (that) we began to work.      Isn't (about) time that children went to school?

  8、in case/ lest/ for fear that表示:一旦、以防、以免,谓语形式:should(不可省) + 动词原形

  He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.

  She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.

  ***可不用虚拟语气,用动词的陈述语气形式:The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him.

  十、主谓一致

  1、名词做主语与谓语的一致

  1)集合名词作主语,如表示整体概念用单数谓语形式;如表示具体成员用复数形式:

  The football team consists of 20 players.       The football team are having a bath now.

  常见此类名词有:army, audience, class, club, committee, company, crowd, couple, family, group, government, jury, party, personnel, staff, union, team, public

  2) 有些集合名词如cattle,folk,people,police,poultry,youth等,总是跟复数动词形式:

  The police have caught the murderer.

  3)单复数形式相同的名词,如aircraft, deer, fish, means, sheep, species, series, works, crossroads, headquarters谓语根据意义来决定单复数。

  The species of fish are numerous.         This species of rose is very rare.

  4)复数名词作专有名词时,用单数谓语。   The United States was founded in 1776.

  5)其他情况

  (1)"the + 形容词"作主语,表示一类可数的人或事物时,用复数谓语;如表示一类不可数的事物时,用单数。

  The old are well looked after by the government.      The agreeable is not always the useful.好看的未必实用。

  (2)表示成双成对的东西的名词,若被a pair of修饰,要求接单数谓语;否则用复数谓语。

  These trousers are made in Shanghai.       This pair of trousers is made in Shanghai.

  2、由连接词连接的主语与谓语的一致

  1)and连接,如果指的是同一人或事物,用单数谓语形式;若指不同人或事物,用复数。

  The secretary and manager was present at the meeting.那位书记兼经理出席了会议

  The secretary and the manager were present at the meeting.书记和经理都出席了会议

  Early to bed and early to rise is a good habit.(作一件事)

  The tenth (chapter) and the last chapter are translated by him.

  2) both…and连接两个名词, 谓语用复数形式

  Both the secretary and manager have agreed to be present.

  3) 主语是and连接的两个单数名词,前面如有each,every,many a,no等修饰,谓语用单数。

  During the holidays, every train and steamboat was crowded.

  No teacher and no student is admitted.师生一律不得入内    Many a boy and many a girl has seen this painting.

  4) 单数名词+ along with, together with, combined with, as well as, rather than,with等词作主语,谓语用单数。                                 Tom as well as two of his classmates was invited to the party.

  5)由or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接的名词或代词作主语时, 谓语要符合就近原则,与邻近的主语一致。        Neither I nor he is to blame.           One or two friends are coming this evening.

  3、代词、"限定词+名词"作主语与谓语的一致

  1)all, half, most, none, some, the remainder (of), the rest (of), plenty (of) 等作主语时,谓语根据意义决定。

  Most of his spare time was spent in reading.     Most of the houses in this town are new.

  Half of the oranges are bad.        Half of the food is unfit to eat.

  2) both, (a) few, many, several等修饰主语,谓语用复数形式。

  Few (of the) guests were familiar to us.     Both of these films are boring.

  3) 由合成词some (any, no, every) + thing (body, one)作主语, 由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither, another, the other作主语, 以及由限定词either, neither, each, every, many a, more than one等+ 名词作主语时, 都跟单数谓语动词。

  Nothing but trees was to be seen.     No one except my parents knows anything about it.

  More than one defendant is involved in the case.被告      Either of the rooms is big enough.

  ***在neither of, either of 的否定式中, 也可用复数动词。

  Neither of them want(s) to come.      I don't think either of them is (are) at home.

  4)在"one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句"结构中, 定语从句一般看作修饰复数名词, 因此该从句谓语用复数。

  This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year.

  ***the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句,谓语则用单数。He was the only one of the boys who was given a prize.

  5)在"代词 + 定语从句"的结构中,从句谓语的人称、性别、数目要与被修饰的代词保持一致。

  I, who am your friend, will try my best to help you.

  6)由what引导的主语从句,一般要用单数谓语。如从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数时,要求用复数谓语。

  What you said is quite to the point. 你所说的非常中肯。     What we need are qualified teachers.……是合格教师。

  4、数词、量词等作主语与谓语的一致

  1)用作运算的数词作主语时,常用单数谓语。

  Ten plus ten makes (equals, gives, is) twenty.     Three multiplied by four is twelve.三乘以四等于十二

  2)数词和表示时间、度量衡、温度和金钱等名词作主语表示一定的量或总和时,谓语一般用单数形式。

  Twenty years in prison was the penalty he had to pay.     Ten thousand dollars is quite a large sum.

  ***Twenty years have passed since his father died.       (years作为时间单位,用复数动词)

  (Thousands of)Millions of dollars have gone into the building of the factory.

  3)分数和百分数修饰时,谓语由其表示的意义决定:

  About one third of the books are worth reading.     Only 20 percent of the work was done yesterday.

  4) 由kind (form, type, sort, species, portion, series, quantity) of等修饰主语,谓语取决于这些词的单、复数。

  A new type of bus is now on show.       Some new forms of art were discussed

  There is only a small quantity of paper (books) left.       Large quantities of water are needed for cooling purposes.

  5) a number of(许多),a variety of(各种各样的)和a group of(一群/组)修饰主语,用复数谓语动词;但the number of(数目)和the variety of(种类)修饰时,用单数谓语。

  A number of students are from the south.       The number of students from the north is small.

  There are a variety of toys in that shop.        The variety of goods in that shop is surprising.

  十一、反意疑问句

  十二、倒装

  1、there be或there + 其他连系动词       There stands a weather station at the top of the hill.

  E.g. there may be, there can be, there must be, there seems to be, there appears to be, there happened to be, there exist, there stand, there remain……

  2、省略if的虚拟条件句中的倒装:(详见"虚拟语气")   Were it fine tomorrow, we would go on a picnic.

  3、在以here, there, now, then等引导的句中,谓语是be, come, go等动词:

  打铃了There goes the bell.   现在轮到你啦Now comes your turn.     ***There he comes.      Here they are.

  4、在so, nor, neither开头的句中:

  If you won't go, neither will I.       I went to a movie last night. So did my sister and brother.

  5、"only + 状语"用于句首表示强调,要用倒装:  Only in this way can you solve this problem.

  6、含有否定意义的副词或词组用于句首,充当状语时,用倒装:

  never,seldom,rarely,little,hardly,scarcely,not until,by no means,in no time,under no circumstances,

  not only…(but also),neither…(nor),no sooner…(than),hardly…(when)

  Never shall I forget this lesson.         In no case will he give up the experiment.

  7、as, be引导的让步状语从句(尽管…),用倒装句:

  Tired as he was, he continued to work.      Try as he might, he could not fulfil the task alone.

  8、当so(such)…that结构中的so,such用于句首加强语气时,用倒装:

  So angry was he (=he was so angry) that he couldn't speak.

  To such an extent do the parents love their son that they have tried to satisfy every demand of his.

  9、有时,在in, out, away, up, down, off等副词开头的句中用倒装:  Away they went.  In she came.

  Following a roar, out rushed a tiger from among the bushes.

  10、比较状语从句和其他比较结构中,常用倒装:

  He traveled a great deal as did most of his friends.他到过很多地方旅行,他的多数朋友也是这样。

  十三、从句

  (一)主语从句

  1、主语从句的位置

  That light travels in straight lines is known to all.  /  It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.

  When the plane is to take off has not been announced.  /  It has not been announced when the plane is to take off.

  What he wants is a book.    Has it been settled who will be sent to carry out the task?

  2、it作形式主语的主语从句结构:

  ①It is + 名词词组 + 从句

  It is a fact/question that…    It is good news that…    It is common knowledge that…(常识)

  ②It is + 形容词 + 从句

  It is necessary/ clear/ (un)likely/ important that…。

  ③It is + 过去分词 + 从句

  It is said/ reported that…    It has been proved that…   It must be pointed out that…

  ④It is + 不及物动词 + 从句

  It seems that…好象是     It happened that…碰巧    It follows that…由此可见    It has turned out that… 结果是

  ***it引导的强调句,分析如:    John bought a toy plane for his son yesterday.

  主 语        宾 语    状 语    状 语

  It was John that (who) bought a toy plane for his son yesterday.  强调主语

  It was a toy plane that John bought for his son yesterday.       强调宾语

  It was for his son that John bought a toy plane yesterday.       强调目的状语

  It was yesterday that John bought a toy plane for his son.       强调时间状语

  (二)宾语从句

  1、作动词的宾语:He wondered how the pyramids were built.   She told me where she lived.

  2、作介词的宾语: This depends on how hard you work.   Is there anything wrong in what I said?

  3、作形容词的宾语: They are confident that they can do it well.  I'm not certain whether(if) they will arrive on time.

  4、宾语从句注意点:

  形式宾语it: He has made it clear that the meeting will not be postponed.

  否定前移:  I don't think he has time to play chess with you.    I don't suppose it is the rush hour yet.

  插入语语序:When (do you think) John will arrive?  Who (do you believe) will be given the prize?

  ***肯定: I think so.     I hope so.    否定: I don't think so.  I hope not.  I'm afraid not.

  (三)表语从句

  My idea is that this plan should be carried out immediately.   It looks that (as if) it is going to rain.

  That is why we called off the meeting.    This is how we did it.

  The reason (why) he was late was that he missed the bus.他迟到的原因是误了车。

  (四)同位语从句(功能:加以阐明、解释)

  I have no idea when he will return.   They are faced with the problem whether they should continue the work.

  (五)定语从句(功能:进行修饰和限定)

  The man whom (that) you saw just now is our manager.  Is there anyone here whose name is Wang Lin?

  The building whose roof we can see from here is a supermarket.

  ****当先行词是all, everything, something, nothing等不定代词, 或被first, last, only, few, much, some, any, no以及形容词最高级等词修饰时, 应该用关系代词that,不用 which.

  I am interested in all that you have told me.    He asked for the best book that there was on the subject.

  ****当并列的两个先行词分别表示人和物时,要用关系代词that引导定语从句。

  We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited there.

  The reason that (=why) you were absent is groundless.  I don't like the way (that) (=in which) he talks.

  This was the second time that I had seen the film.    This is the same watch as (that) I have lost.

  No one will believe such stories as he told.     He works in the same shop as (that) I do.

  限定性: I want to buy the house which (=that) has a garden.

  非限定性: I want to buy the house, which (≠that) has a garden.

  This is the place where (=in which) I spent my childhood.  This is the place which I visited last summer.

  The first person who opens that door will get a shock.

  Those who will go to tomorrow's show will have to come this afternoon to get their tickets.

 
相关“成考专升本英语重点语法资料四”的文章

广东成考便捷服务

成考招生