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2017成人高考高起点英语语法精讲——主谓一致
发布日期:2017-11-6 10:17:04 来源:广东成考网 阅读: 【字体:

 主谓一致

  主谓一致是指句子的谓语动词要与句子的主语在人称和数上保持一致。这类题的出题方式一般是要求考生根据已给的主语或主语部分在四个选项中选出与之相配的正确的谓语动词。

  l)名词作主语的情况:通常情况下,作主语的名词为单数,谓语动词肯定用单数;名词为复数,谓语动词用复数。但下列情况应特别注意。

  要求用单数谓语动词的名词:表示国家、学科、书、杂志或剧名的词,如mathematics(数学),the United States(美国)等;不可数名词,如information(信息),news(新闻),furniture(家具),the population(人口)等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  Physics is so difficult for me to learn well.

  物理对我来说学好太难了。

  The new advanced machinery has been sent to the factory.

  新的先进机器已经送到工厂了。

  Harry Potter is very popular all over the world.

  《哈利·波特》在全世界都很受欢迎。

  要求用复数谓语动词的名词:arms(武装),clothes(衣服),goods(货物),people(人),police(警察),cattle(牛),youth(年轻人)等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

  The goods have been transported to you by sea.

  货物已经海运发给你了。

  The people who go online include those who are looking for better opportunities.

  上网人包括那些寻找更好机会的人。

  要求用单数或复数谓语动词的名词:有些名词在作主语时,其所需的谓语动词要看情形而定。

  表示两个对称部分组成的事物的名词,单独作主语时,谓语动词用复数;用量词或表示类别的词修饰后作主语时,谓语动词根据量词的数目变换。这类词有:shoes(鞋),pants(裤子),shorts(短裤),glasses(眼镜),trousers(长裤),scissors(剪子),等等。修饰这些词的短语有:kind of,type of,pair of,quantity of,amount of,等等。

  The new shoes I just bought are for my daughter.

  我刚买的鞋是给我女儿的。

  The pair of glasses belongs to her mother.

  那副眼镜是她他*的。

  Two types of pants are sold out.

  两种款式的裤子卖光了。

  单、复数同形的名词作主语时,强调单数时用单数谓语动词,强调复数时用复数谓语动词。这类词有:family(家庭、家庭成员),team(队、队员),class(班级、班级成员),government(政府、政府官员),club(俱乐部、俱乐部成员),public(公众、公民),group(小组、小组成员),crowd(群、一群人),crew(工作人员),means(方法),works(工厂),sheep(羊),fish(鱼),Japanese(日本人),Chinese(中国人),any(无论哪个、无论哪些),等等。

  Her family is very warm.Every member of her family is so friendly.

  她的家庭非常温暖,每一个家庭成员都很友好。

  The class is/are interested in his lectures.

  班里的同学对他的讲座很感兴趣。

  2)代词作主语的情况:

  要求单数谓语动词的代词:someone,anyone,no one,everyone,somethin9,nothing,each,等等。

  Each of them in the team has been working hard.

  队里的每一个人都一直在努力训练。

  No one likes your book.

  没人喜欢你的书。

  代词后接名词,谓语动词则根据其名词而定。这类代词及其形式有:all of,some of,half of,none of,most of,lots of,a lot of,plenty of,等等。同样这些代词,后不加of用法相同。

  Some of the people were late this morning for the heavy rain.

  今天早晨因为大雨有些人迟到了。

  Some of water is left in the cup.

  杯子里还剩了点儿水。

  All the things are in the car now.

  现在所有的东西都在车里了。

  Some work is easy.

  有些活很简单。

  3)数量词作主语的情况:

  Many a+可数名词单数,谓语动词用单数,表示“许多”。

  A number of+名词复数,谓语动词用复数,表示“许多”。

  The number of+名词复数,谓语动词用单数,表示“……的数量”。

  Many a student now in high school has taken TOEFl.

  如今许多中学生都考了托福。

  A number of soldiers have gone to Sichuan Province.

  许多士兵都去了四川省。

  The number of the students in our school is 2,000.

  我们学校的学生数是2 000。

  百分数作主语时,谓语动词的单、复数由名词的单、复数及其意义而定。

  90 percent of students have passed the test.(students复数)

  百分之九十的学生通过了考试。

  90 percent is a large percentage.(强调百分比)

  百分之九十是一个很大的比例。

  时间、价格、距离、度量衡单位等名词或短语作主语时,无论单、复数,谓语动词一律用单数。

  Ten years has passed.

  过去l0年了。

  500 meters is not far at all.We can walk there.

  500米根本不远,我们可以走过去。

  4)从句或短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  Reading books is a good way to learn more.

  要学得更多,读书是个好方法。

  How far we can go is a problem.

  我们到底能走多远是个问题。

  What I said is good to you.

  我所说的是为你好。

  注意:who和what引导的从句作主语时,如果指具体的人或事,谓语动词的单、复数则须根据其含义而定。

  What I need are things like books,pens,notebooks and so on.

  我需要的是书、笔、本子之类的东西。

  5)由连接词连接两个名词作主语的情况:

  由and连接的两个名词作主语时:如果两个名词表示不同的事物,谓语动词用复数;若两个名词表示同一事物或一个整体时(这种情况通常是第一个名词前有冠词,第二个名词前没有冠词),谓语动词用单数;但两个名词前均被each,every,no修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

  The writer and the professor are coming to our school.

  那位作家和那位教授正赶往我们学校。

  The professor and writer offers writing course in our school.

  那位教授兼作家在我们学校开设写作课。

  Every teacher and every student has the chance to join the club.

  每一位老师和学生都有机会加入这个俱乐部。

  由or,not only…but also,either…or,neither...nor,not...but等连接两个名词作主语时:根据就近原则确定谓语动词的单、复数。

  Not only you but also he is going to participate in the election.(is就近跟he,而不跟you)

  不光是你,他也准备加入选举。

  He or we two are going to the countryside.(are就近跟we,不跟he)

  或者他,或者我们俩会去乡下。

  注意:若either或neither单独作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。

  Neither is here.

  两个人都不在。

  Either has come.

  两人都来过。

  由with,together with,along with,as well as,in,out of,except,rather than,like等介词或短语连接的两个名词作主语时,谓语动词的单、复数根据这些词或短语前面的名词确定。

  He together with his classmates is going to the new park.(is跟he,而不跟复数classmates)

  他准备和他的同学一起去新开的公园。

  You as well as your boyfriend have the tickets for the movie.

  你和你的男朋友都有电影票。

  6)The+形容词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

  The wounded have been sent to the hospital.

  伤者已经被送往医院了。

  7)There be句型中的be的单、复数由后面的名词而定;如果有两个以上的名词则采用就近原则。

  There is only a boy in the group.

  这个组里只有一个男孩。

  There are many books in the room.

  这个房间里有很多书。

  There is a girl,two boys and three adults in the room.(is就近跟单数girl)

  这个房间里有一个女孩、两个男孩、三个成人。

  8)定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,从句中的谓语动词应与关系代词所指代的先行词一致。

  The young man who is talking to Jane is our Dew boss.

  跟Jane谈话的那个年轻人是我们的新老板。(主句是the young man is our new boss,从句是who is talking to Jane。Man是先行词,who指代man。Man是单数,所以,从句中的谓语动词用单数is)

  These are the dictionaries that were newly published.

  这些就是刚出版的字典。(主句是these are the dictionaries,从句是that were newly published。dictionaries是先行词,that指代dictionaries,dictionaries是复数,所以,从句中的谓语动词用复数were)

  注意:one of+名词复数,后面的从句中的谓语动词用复数,表示整体包括这一个;the(only)one of+名词复数,后面的从句中的谓语动词用单数,表示整体不包括这一个。

  She is one of my students who have studied abroad.

  她是我的那些出国念过书的学生中的一个。(整体包括她)

  She is the only one of my students who has been abroad.

  她是我学生中唯一出过国的。(整体不包括她)

  例题及说明:

  例l:Jenny is the only one of the grade who selected to school fashion-show team.(2007)

  A.is

  B.are

  C.has

  D.have

  说明:考查定语从句的主谓一致。答案:A。Who指的是one,one是who的先行词,指的是Jenny。因此,谓语动词应用单数;被选为是被动态,应选is。【句子大意】Jenny是这个年级唯一被选人校服装表演队的。

  例2:Most of the athletes have come to understand:what matters not winning but

  participatin9.(2006)

  A.is

  B.are

  C.was

  D.were

  说明:考查主语从句的主谓一致。答案:A。What matters是what引导的主语从句,谓语动词要求单数。【句子大意】大部分运动员已经开始明白真正重要的是参与,而不是赢。

  例3.More than ten percent of the workers from Italy.(2004)

  A.is

  B.comes

  C.was

  D.are

  说明:考查百分比的主谓一致。答案:D。百分数后面的名词是复数,则谓语动词应是复数形式。【句子大意】超过百分之十的工人来自意大利。

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