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成人高考高起点英语语法归纳与练习七
发布日期:2017-4-19 13:47:27 来源:广东成考网 阅读: 【字体:

    lesson 7   形容词和副词(三)

    形容词和副词的特殊表达法

    一、形容词与副词的同级比较: 由“as(so)…as”引出,其否定式为“not so…”或“not as…as”,此外还应注意下列含有“as”结构或短语的句子

    1. as such:表示上文所指明的事或人

    He is a child,and must be treated as such. 他是个孩子,必须被当作孩子对待。

    2. as much:表示“与…同量”

    Take as much as you like. 拿多少都行。

    I would gladly have paid twice as much for it. 就是价格再贵一倍,我也会愿意把它买下的。

    He as much as admitted the whole story. 他几乎全部承认了。

    3. as many:表示“与…一样多”

    I found six mistakes in as many lines. 我在六行中发现了六个错。

    二、表示“几倍于”的比较级:用twice (两倍),four times (四倍),ten times (十倍)加上as … as 结构

    This one is four times as big as that one. 这个是那个的四倍大。(这个比那个大三倍。) Our campus is three times as large as yours. 我们的校园比你们的大两倍。

    He has books twice as many as she does. 他的书比她多一倍。

    三、“the same +名词+as”表示同等比较

    四、比较级前可用a little, a bit, slightly, a great deal, a lot,many, much等词语表示不定量,far, completely,still表示程度或更进一步

    五、与比较级有关的特殊词用法

    1. no more than …表示“只不过”,“并不比…”(等于not any more than)

    Man cannot live without food any more than plants can grow without sunshine.

    人没有食物不能生存,植物没有阳光也不能生长。

    There is no difficulty with this task any more than with that one.

    这项任务没有困难,那项任务也没有困难。

    2. no less than 表示“不亚于”

    There are no less than five hundred people present at the New Year party.

    出席新年晚会的有五百人之多。(出席的人较多)

    3. not less than 表示“不少于”

    There are not less than five hundred people present at the New Year party.

    出席新年晚会的只有五百人。(出席的人较不多)

    4. more often than not 表示“多数情况下”

    On Friday mornings, he comes late more often than not.

    多数情况下,他星期五来得晚。

    5. all the more 因而更加

    We really admired him all the more for his frankness. 我们更加钦佩他的坦率。

    6. (be) better off 较富裕,环境较好

    7. had better 最好……

    Come, you had much better have the thing out at once. 来,你最好把这东西弄出去。

    8. less than 不到

    The first steam locomotive could have a top speed of only thirteen mph(miles per hour) and the great sailing ships of the time labored along at less than half that speed.第一列蒸汽火车最快每小时只有13英里,那时的大船还不到这个速度的一半。

    9. little more than 差不多

    The grain in their barn is little more than that of ours.

    他们仓的粮食跟我们仓的粮食差不多。

    10. more than 超过,不止

    I have waited for your for more than two hours. 我等了你两个多小时。

    11. more or less 大体上,或多或少

    The work is more or less finished. 工作大体算完成了。

    Most of them came here to near money, more or less Mr.Wang worked for his cause.他们大都来挣钱的,但王先生有点像为事业而工作。

    12. other than 除了

    They imposed no pre conditions other than that the meeting should be held in their capital. 除了会议要在他们的首都开之外,他们没有提出任何先决条件。

    13. rather than 而不是,与其…宁愿(rather than表示“与其…宁愿”时,如果位于句首引导句子,有虚拟的成分,相当于“… would rathe than,”所以rather than后面跟动词原形)

    Read what interests you; read what you have time for magazines and newspapers rather than novels.

    读你感兴趣的东西,读你有时间读的东西,如杂志和报纸而不是小说。

    Rather than allow the potatoes to go bad, she sold them at half price.

    她以半价把土豆给卖了,而没有让它们烂掉。

    Rather than cause trouble, he left.

    为了不惹事,他还是走了。

    14. so much the better 就更好了

    If she will help us, so much the better.

    如果他能帮我们,那就更好了。

    15. so much the worse 就更糟了

    So much the worse for you if you still are absent from class.

    如果你继续逃课的话,就对你更不利了。

    16. the more…the more(less)“越是……,就越……”

    六、比较中的省略

    1. 在as…as中,as从句可省略整个谓语部分,保留主语

    She sings as well as her sister. 她跟她的姐姐唱得一样好(省去了does)。

    2. 可以省去谓语部分,保留主语和be、have等助动词

    Susan has done as much housework as you have. (省去了done.)

    3. 可以省去主语和谓语,只剩下状语

    It is not as cold in Beijing as in Datong. 北京的天气没有大同冷。

    4. than从句也可以省去整个谓语部分,保留主语

    They say that blood is thicker than water, that our relatives are more important to us than others. 他们说血浓于水,亲属对我们来说比其他人更重要。

    5. than从句省去部分谓语,保留主语和be,have或助动词

    The white collar workers earn more than the blue workers do.

    白领工人比蓝领工人挣得多。

    这时 我们可以进行倒装,即将than后从句中的be,have或助动词移到该从句的前边

    After all, big changes are relatively easier to make than are small ones.

    相对来说,大变动比小变动毕竟容易些。

    The fact is that some drug addicts are much better able to cure addiction in each other than are psychiatrists; some convicts can run better rehabilitation programs for convicts than do correctional officers; some patients in mental hospitals are better for each other than is the staff.

    事实上,有些吸毒成瘾者与吸毒成瘾者之间戒瘾比精神病医生的作用还好;有些罪犯在改造其他罪犯方面比教改人员强;医院里的病人与病人之间的沟通比医务人员与病人间的沟通还强。

    6. than从句可以省去主语和部分谓语,保留宾语

    Grandma gives more candies to her grandson than her granddaughter. 奶奶给孙子的糖比给孙女的多。(省去了she gives candies to)

    7. than从句可以省去主语和谓语,保留状语

    There are more books in this library than in that library. 这个图书馆的书比那个多。(省去了there are many books)

    She is much better than yesterday. 她比昨天好多了。(省去了she was)

    Signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past. 近些年来在学校、商业和政府中欺诈的迹象比以前更多。

    8. than从句可以省去主语,保留谓语部分

    His speed of doing the work was much faster than had expected. 他干此事的速度远比想象的快。(省去了he或we)

    9. 有时可以省去整个than从句

    He is much healthier and happier. 她比以往任何时侯都健康幸福。(省去了than he was ever before)

    10. 为了避免重复,我们经常用that代替不可数名词, those代替复数名词,one代替可数名词单数

    七、隐含比较级

    有时比较级并不一定出现than,这时通过上下文可喑示出,如:-Of the two oranges, which do you choose? -I like the larger one.这里的larger one是指前边提到的两个当中的较大的一个。而且有些形容词在表示比较的时候,跟“to”而不用“than”

    1. prior to 较早的,较重要的

    The task is prior to all others. 这项任务比其他所有的任务都重要。

    I called on him prior to my departure. 动身前我去看了他一趟。

    2. superior to优越,高于

    In math he felt superior to John. 他觉得自己数学比约翰强。

    They were resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. 他们决心战胜一切困难。

    3. inferior to 下等的,次的

    These apples are inferior in flavour to those. 这些苹果的味道不如那些。

    4. senior to 年长的,地位高的;junior年幼的,地位低的,迟的

    He is two years senior to me. 他比我大两岁。

    Her appointment is junior to mine by six weeks. 她的任命比我迟六星期。

    5. preferable to 更好的

    Health without riches is preferable to riches without health.

    贫穷但健康要比富有却多病更可取。

    6. prefer…to 更倾向于…

    I prefer this to that. 我喜欢这个而不喜欢那个。

    八、最高级在特殊短语中的使用:在有下列短语的句子中,往往使用最高级

    1. one of…

    3. in the world(或群体名词)

    九、其他有关比较的习惯表达法

    1. “as +形容词(副词)+as possible”结构,表示“最…,尽可能…”:“as quickly as possible”(尽量快)

    2. “ sooner or later”是成语,表示“迟早、早晚”

    3. “would rather +动词原形+than …”是惯用句型,表示“宁愿…而不愿…”,由于连词than 要求前后所比较的成分要一致

    十、most表示“非常”: 有时most并不表示“最……”,而是作副词表示“非常”之意。其实它是much的最高级,作形容词用是“大多数”之意,前边不加the.另外much与to构成介词词组,表示“在很大程度上使……”that也可以作副词用,表示“如此,那么”相当于so

    十一、形容词与副词的修饰关系: 一般来说,形容词用来作表语(与系动词连用,注意taste, feel, become等词作系动词用时,它们后的表示应该是形容词,包括ed分词)或作定语修饰名词,而形容词不能修饰形容词包括ED分词;但副词可以修饰形容词(包括ED分词),副词还可以修饰副词、动词或短语

    十二、形容词与副词的位置

    1. 当几个形容词共同修饰同一名词时,它们的先后顺序是:限定词→数词→描述性形容词→大小、长短、形状的形容词→色彩形容词→类属形容词→表材料形容词+被修饰的名词;或只记住限定词像a, the, my, their等词在最前边,其他词根据它们与被修饰名词关系的远近进行安排

    2. 一般来说,单个副词修饰形容词时,副词放在形容词前;但enough修饰形容词时要放在形容词之后

    good enough, mysterious enough

    3. so修饰的是副词,而such修饰的是名词

    4. 形容词修饰名词时放在前边,但修饰复合不定代词(something, someone, somebody; anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, noone, nobody)时,则放在这些词之后

    something important, anything possible

    十三、关于hardly, rarely, scarcely与seldom的用法

    hardly“刚刚,不完全”,表示程度:I hardly know him. “我几乎认不出他了”,表示还是能认出或者说“我刚刚能认出他”;hardly与any连用表示“几乎没有”,与ever连用表示“几乎从来不”; scarcely的意思与hardly更接近。rarely“不经常”,表示事物发生的频率:He rarely goes there. 他很少(不经常)去那里。seldom“很少,不经常”,它与rarely更接近。

    同步练习

    1) The fiveyear deal obligates [A] the country to buy nine million tons [B] of grain a year [C] , three million more as [D] the old pact's minimum.

    解析:D错。 改为than.

    2) The lens of a camera performs    the lens of the eye.

    [A] in the same function [B] the same function as

    [C] the function is the same as [D] and has the same function

    解析:B对。本句的汉语意思是“照相机的镜头和眼睛的水晶体所起的作用相同”。

    3) The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would

    have as the amount of money borrowed.

    [A] as the same value [B] the same value

    [C] value as the same [D] the value is the same

    解析:B对。本句的汉语意思是“消除通货膨涨会保证还的钱与借时的钱同值”。

    4) There are now   methods for studying color vision in infants than there once were.

    [A] more sophisticated than

    [B] much more sophisticated

    [C] much sophisticated

    [D] sophisticated

    解析:B为正确答案。

    5) The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are than those taken from the Earth.

    [A] clearest

    [B] the clearest

    [C] much clearer

    [D] more clearer

    解析:C为正确答案。

    6) Common porpoises(海豚) are usually not considered [A] migratory, although [B] some do move [C] to more warmer [D] waters in winter.

    解析:D错。 改为warmer.

    7) During observations made over a fiftyyear period, the power output of the Sun has   than a few tenths of one percent.

    [A] varied by no more [B] varied no more by

    [C] not varied more by [D] more varied by not

    解析:A为正确答案。

    8) Few of the people who live on the cooperatives  than they were as laborers.

    [A] is well off financial

    [B] financially well off

    [C] are better off finanically

    [D] financial better off

    解析:C为正确答案。

    9) He came all the way to China for promoting friendship for making money.

    [A] other than [B] better than [C] more than [D] rather than

    解析:D为正确答案。

    10) He preferred to write the letter by hand .

    [A] to typing it

    [B] than type it

    [C] to type it

    [D] rather than type it

    解析: D为正确答案。

    11) The harder he tried, [A] the worst [B] he danced [C] before the large [D] audience.

    解析:B错。 改为worse.

    12) The quicker a loan [A] is repaid [B] , the least [C] it will [D] cost.

    解析: C错。 改为less.

    13) Hot objects emit   do cold objects.

    [A] rays more than infrared(红外线) [B] rays are more infrared than

    [C] more than infrared rays [D] more infrared rays than

    解析:D对。本句中的比较级为形容词more (much 的比较级),被比较的两个事物为“hot objects”和“cold objects”,在所释放(emit)的红外线(infrared rays)的量上,前者多于后者。其中more修饰infrared rays,它们不能被分开,故只有D在词序上正确。空白后面为倒装语序,其中的do代替动词emit,本句空白后也可用正常语序,即“cold objects do”。

    14) Last year the country had [A] fewer imports as [B] did the year before last [C] due to [D] the energy crisis.

    解析: B错。 改为than.

    15) Long Island, an [A] island that forms the [B] southeastern part of New York, has a [C] greater population than which [D] of fortytwo of thefifty states.

    解析: D错。 改为that,代替population.

    16) The grain of rye is longer [A] and slenderer [B] than [C] those of [D] wheat.

    解析:D错。 改为that.这里比较的“The grain”不是复数,不能用复数代词those.

    17) The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than .

    [A] the domestic marketer has [B] the domestic marketer does

    [C] those of the domestic marketer [D] that which has the domestic marketer

    解析:C为正确答案。比较句中,连词than前后,即所比较的成分要一致,应该在同种事物间进行比较。本句所比较的是两种 activities ,故C正确,代词those 代替“the activities”。

    18) The grape is   cultivated plants.

    [A] one of the oldest [B] the oldest one

    [C] one which the oldest [D] the one is the oldest of

    解析:A对。“one of the oldest…”表示“(历史)最长的栽种植物之一”,C和D均不合语法,而B选项中的one多余。

    19)    , William Shakespeare is the most widely known.

    [A] With all writers in English

    [B] All writers in English

    [C] All of the writers in English

    [D] Of all writers in English

    解析:D为正确答案。

    20) The crane is of the wading birds.

    [A] the tallest

    [B] the tallest that is

    [C] which is the tallest

    [D] which the tallest is

    解析:A为正确答案。

    21) The Appalachians Trail, extending [A] approximately 2,020 miles [B] from Maine to Georgia, is the longer [C] continuous [D] marked footpath in the world.

    解析:C错。只有在两者相比较时才使用比较级,而本句出现了状语in the world,明显表示不止两者相比,故应改用最高级 (the) longest .

    22) La Paz, Bolivia is the higher [A] capital city in [B] the western hemisphere and [C] the secondhighest [D] in the world.

    解析:A错。 改为the highest.

    23) The best way to control rats is by seeing that they have as .

    [A] possibly little nourishment [B] nourishment possibly little

    [C] little as possible nourishment [D] little nourishment as possible

    解析:D 为正确答案,“as little nourishment as possible ”意为“尽可能少的养料”。

    24) Earlier [A] or later, all lakes are influenced [B] by eutrophication, a process in which lake sediment(沉积物) lowers the depth [C] of the water and drains(除去) oxygen from it [D] .

    解析: A错。改为sooner.

    25) Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf    of the telephone.

    [A] than inventing [B] than as the inventor

    [C] the invention [D] as the inventor

    解析:B 为正确答案,两个短语“as a teacher of the deaf”和“ as the inventor of the telephone”相比。

    26) Wool is characteristic on which to classify breeds of sheep.

    [A] most obviously

    [B] obvious the most

    [C] the most obvious

    [D] the most obvious that is

    解析:C为正确答案。注意: 空档后的“characteristic”是名词而不是形容词,所以不能填A.

    27) The Democratic party has controlled [A] the most [B] of the elected positions at [C] state and local levels in South Carolina since [D] the Reconstruction.

    解析:B错。 改为most.

    28) During [A] the seventeenth century the most [B] colonists were primarily concerned with [C] D)] economics [D] and defense.

    解析:B错。 改为most.

    29) Belgium, in the [A] 19th century, rapid [B] grew into [C] an industrial [D] country.

    解析:A错。改为rapidly.

    30) The Lost Colony in North Carolina mysterious [A] disappeared between [B] 1587 and 1590, when its [C] founder returned from a visit [D] to England.

    解析:A错。改为mysteriously.

    31) Many flatworms have  of eyes.

    [A] more pairs than one

    [B] more than one pair

    [C] one more pair than

    [D] one pair more than

    解析:B为正确答案。

    32) Of the two houses the family prefers .

    [A] the most isolated one

    [B] the one isolated more

    [C] the more isolated one

    [D] the isolated one more

    解析:C为正确答案。

    33) Freezing is at present one of the of preserving meats and vegatables.

    [A] most methods are important

    [B] methods most important

    [C] most important methods

    [D] most are important methods

    解析:C为正确答案。

    34) The radio was of so [A] inferior quality that [B] I took it back [C] and asked for a better one [D] .

    解析: A错。 改为such.

 
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